Of the more than 100 known herpesviruses, 8 routinely infect only humans: herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, human herpesvirus 6 (variants A and B), human herpesvirus 7, and Kaposi's sarcoma virus or human herpesvirus 8. A simian virus, called B virus, occasionally infects humans. All herpesviruses can establish latent infection within specific tissues, which are characteristic for each virus.
Herpesviruses have a unique four-layered structure: a core containing the large, double-stranded DNA genome is enclosed by an icosapentahedral capsid which is composed of capsomers. The capsid is surrounded by an amorphous protein coat called the tegument. It is encased in a glycoprotein-bearing lipid bilayer envelope.
The virus replicates initially in epithelial cells, producing a characteristic vesicle on an erythematous base. It then ascends sensory nerves to the dorsal root ganglia, where, after an initial period of replication, it establishes latency. During reactivated infection, the virus spreads distally from the ganglion to initiate new cutaneous and/or mucosal lesions.
Host Defenses :
Interferon and humoral, mucosal, and cellular immunity are important defenses. Herpes simplex virus infections are more severe in immunocompromised hosts.
Herpes simplex virus 1 transmission is primarily oral, and herpes simplex virus 2 primarily genital. Transmission requires intimate contact... Discover more
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known as human herpesvirus 4, close oral contact is the main route of transmission, and the virus is thought to be one of the causes of various malignancies such as nasopharyngeal.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) also can cause infectious mononucleosis which is a contagious illness commonly occurring in teenagers and young adults.
Typical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are extreme fatigue, fever, sore throat, head and body aches, swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits, swollen liver or spleen or both, the symptoms will last for four to six weeks, and it can be detected by herpes test kit.
Real-time fluorescent PCR method is used to directly detect EBV DNA from serum, plasma and whole blood, which is a rapid, sensitive and accurate testing solution.